Groups participated in the project:
- Social risk families and/or orphans (from 16 years old) – 100 persons;
- People from foster home or special boarding – schools (16 – 29 years old) – 130 persons;
- Disabled – 115 persons.
Territories analysed: Alytus, Kaunas, Druskininkai, Šiauliai, Marijampolė, Klaipėda, Utena.
- To ascertain the economic, social and motivational level of particular social groups;
- To identify the problems of social groups and what are the reasons that cause these problems ;
- To make the evaluation of psychosocial competence and common skills that social groups have;
- To find out the employers attitude to these social groups.
- To overlook the prognosis and perspectives in labour market.
Aim: to analyse the basic needs of specific groups and to ascertain the situation in labour market as well as the possibility to integrate these social groups into the labour market.
Methods applied for the analysis:
- Survey was made to find out what members of the social groups thinks about their own situation;
- The in –depth interview method applied when speaking with directors of foster homes and social workers and specialists, social pedagogues and workers of psychological institutions;
- Semi – structural interview method which was used in phone interview. The phone interview was made to analyse the employers opinion about working people from social risk groups;
- Document analysis (findings of jobcentre) was used to ascertain the prognosis and perspectives in labour market.
EVALUATION OF POSSIBILITIES IN LABOUR MARKET
Evaluation of employers’ attitude towards the social groups
In general, 36 businessmen in each municipality were inquired. The semi – structural interview method were applied to collect the data during the phone interview.
Due to the specific of social groups the businessmen attitude towards the people from the social risk groups cannot be fully analysed, because these people usually do not mention that experience when applying for a job. The most important factor in this case is skills, knowledge and working experience.
Employers’ evaluation is rather controversial. Only 25 % thinks that people from social risk groups can be a part of working process, also to be paid and make career, 35 % of them have neutral opinion (it depends on disability level). Others think that it would be hard for people of the social risk groups to work and to be employed.
Almost all of the residents claimed, that this is because there are particular stereotypes about the disabled people that they require special care and this is the reason they cannot work. According to many businessmen, the work done by disabled people is less efficient, also they tend to be passive, not so motivated or interested in their work quality and achievements. Another stereotype held by society is that disabled people are not prepared to work intensively also their inadequate reaction to some situations. The situation becomes even worse as there is not enough information about how disabled people can get higher qualification; fulfil the needs of potential employer. There is lack of information about grant-maintained employment programs.
One of the ways to see worker’s skills and capability to use them is to give him/her practice in social projects. Then all of the trainees have a chance to prove that they are perfect for particular job. In this case, when the project ends, it is possible that those who did well will be employed, even though, they are disabled.
Many employers have no information about integrating disabled people into labour market. According to the research, 58, 3 % of businessmen hadn’t heard about it or had no interest.
Another question was if these programs oriented to the disabled people integration into labour market promote the job – creation for them. Only 16, 7 % of the respondents answered positively to the question, 33, 3 % were against job – creation for disabled people and 50 % were without the opinion. Due to the lack of information, the results and index are disappointing.
75 % of employers still think that disabled people need more perks than they can provide, which is wrong. Only 25% of the being inquired said that they think their business have enough perks for disabled employees.
According to the employers, those who want to get a job need professional rehabilitation. Disabled people are rarely given an opportunity to get higher qualification, so the projects are important for them to show their skills.
Communication, professional competence and social skills are those that disabled people tend not to have, according to the most businessmen.
Labour market prognosis and perspectives
According to the labour marker prognosis, some analysis of possible jobs in the cities was made.
Alytus jobcentre made a research to analyse changes of job vacancy in labour market. According to the results, there will be almost 900 vacant posts in all the economic sectors.
One of five companies thinks that the demand of production and service will increase and only one – sixth decrease.
For the next year, 6% new vacant posts for specialists are supposed to be registered, 65% for operating personnel and qualified workers, 15 % for unskilled. So it is necessary to have professional and common skills.
In Alytus, the most required employees will be draymen, working in the city and going abroad, sales managers, food industry, sellers, hall workers, sewing technologists, insurance agents, woodcutters, welders, wood processing machine operators.
According to Šiauliai jobcentre data, 3 of 5 companies provide service, every forth is industrial. 47,4 proc.
47, 4 % of inquired businessmen have an intention to invest into enterprise development, mostly in service – sector, however only in small companies (of 5 – 19 workers). 60, 3 % of the companies are planning to invest during the following year. Mainly job creation will be done in service – sector and industrial companies (81 %) 399 jobs will be created in service – sector:
Transport and logistics – jobs for draymen, automobile and taxi drivers;
Wholesale and trade – jobs for sellers, hall workers, sales managers;
Administration and service – sector – jobs for business managers, security guards.
When asked about the demand for professional training most of businessmen emphasized the demand of sellers, hall workers, wood processing machine operators and drivers having E category in service – sector. Also there will be demand for sellers, wood processing machine operators and cabinetmakers in industrial companies and tractor – drivers in agriculture. To sum up, businessmen need qualified workers.
Marijampolė jobcentre made some prognosis that there more young people engaged into labour market by the end of 2011. Also, there will be some programs that help to reduce unemployment among youth. Service – sector, food and metal industries are the places offering most jobs. Looking at the structure of workplace in different areas of economics, the prognosis that the biggest part of jobs (51%) will be offered by service – sector, 29% – by industrial companies, 12% construction and 8% agricultural companies.
There will be about 700 persons employed per month on the average. Also 5800 jobs will be created, 70 % of them as permanent workplaces.
In Utena city, Industrial and construction sectors should employ the biggest part of jobless (40 % and 34 %), while agricultural sector only 5%. It means that can expect the recovery of construction sector after the crisis.
According to the prognosis there will be lack of draymen, sellers, hall workers, tailors, qualified constructors in 2011. There will be more opportunity for these people to get a job. There is a plan to register 6% new job offers for specialists, 63 % for service personnel, and 31 % for unqualified workers during this year.
Kaunas jobcentre made an analysis of probable economic growth. According to the results, more than 50 % of the companies expect the same output and every second businessman is intended to increase the amount of their production. Employers are going to register about 22, 3 thousands of jobs. Most of vacant jobs will be established in private sector and in small and medium – sized enterprises. Businessmen would like to engage 65% of those who have vocational training into labour market, also 26 % of those unqualified and only 9 % with academic education. It is evident, that there will be a demand of those who have vocational training degree.
The job creation should be divided into these parts: 37% of workplace will be created in industrial sector companies – food, textile and clothes, cabinet making, and timber enterprises. 34 % of the new jobs will be offered in service – sector – wholesale and trade, hospitality and feed, trading and repair of motor and other enterprises.
Analysing situation in Klaipėda and Druskininkai, many jobcentres came to conclusion that a matter of primary interest in these cities will be their holiday resort status. Many hotels and restaurants are supposed to be freshened up. Most of the jobs will be created in service – sector (65 %) as in the other cities. According to statistics made by territorial jobcentres about the changes in labour market, there will be a demand of qualified chambermaids, waitresses, bartenders, cabinetmakers in both cities. In addition health resorts, and other objects related to tourism and recreation will be developed as well as interest and investment in business. Workers getting higher qualification are mostly required by business people in service – sector.
To sum up, tendencies of labour market and business prognosis show that the decrease of unemployed people in all mentioned domains will be managed by service and marketing sectors, mostly in transport and service work. Specialities of draymen, salesmen, hall workers, waiters-barmen, and cooks will dominate between those who have demand. It causes the necessity of reclassification of employees who have become unemployed in other sectors. These indicators show what kind of professional skills should be gained by persons who do not have any speciality in order to be able to compete in the labour marker.
RESULTS OF THE RESEARCH:
- Many pupils of foster home, also people who have already left foster home, and people who are attached to social risk are learning in primary, secondary, and professional education institution. There are just few people who are already working. Representatives of these groups are poorly motivated to compete in the labour market and they are poorly assessing the ability to search for a work. They have no idea what kind of future perspectives they will have after they finish their education. These young people very often have educational problems. A big part of these young people leave school without gaining any education and they are not fostered to continue education after they become 16 year old, but many of them are not satisfied with this kind of situation. It is important to notice that often they have no hobby, no occupation, and they are not involved in any social or additional work. Causality of these indicators is connected with the lack of motivation, narrow point of view, poor curiosity and sociality, and lack of social environmental orientation. Even questioned persons with disabilities willingly combine into associations and they are organizing to have a collective work, although, their integration into the labour market can be assessed negatively. Indicators show that the biggest part of representatives of these groups is registered in territorial labour market, although, disabled persons register just in order to get social guarantees, but they are not motivated to find a job.
- Many pupils of foster home, also people who have already left foster home, children who are living in families attached to social risk, and also people with disabilities make a living of gaining allowance and social payment. So, unemployment and the lack of work motivation is the main problem of all purposive groups. As the main problem of poor interest – gaining a small salary, sometimes even less than social allowance, also fear of loosing social allowance after becoming active participants in the labour market. Other important reasons – their passive position of work search and lack of purposeful motivation, unwillingness to work, and absence of qualification, knowledge, skills, and education. There are no good problem solution of these people integration into the labour market because still there are no effective mechanism which actions would be based on social partnership of concerned institutions and intended to professional preparation and integration into the labour market for purposeful arrangement and assurance. Many participants of these groups are disappointed with the provided abilities for different kind of means, to gain qualification because leaving the educational courses as they say “they are left in despair”, and work position is not ensured. It is very important to recreate motivation, efficiency, professional competence and capacity to participate in labour market of educational, social, psychological, rehabilitation and other means of impact.
- According to many pupils of foster home, also young persons who have already left foster home, and children who are attached to social risk, their social skills are not so good as disabled people skills. These indicators show that representatives of these groups are more isolated from environment and they avoid contact with the outside world. Therefore, they are lacking of interpesonal skills (interaction with others), establishment of contact, perception of reciprocal concept, conflict solution, coping with stress, and collaboration skills. Disabled people are more likely to join a fellowship, communities, which unify them according to their hobbies (e.g. disabled people organizations of riding, sport, etc), according to disability form (associations of those who have diabetes, associations of those who have Bechterew’s disease, etc). They engage in mutual activities after they draw together into a fellowship (all kinds of music ensembles, knitting clubs, cookery clubs, computer programmer clubs, etc). It causes regular usage and development of abilities and skills of disabled people. Many of them have better communication abilities, solution acceptance, emotional resolution skills, etc. Of course not everyone. The coefficient of analysis shows that a meaningful participation in work and connection of social skills of communication and collaboration skills exist because majority of those below who value their social skills were socially inactive and did not participated in any occupation of activities. It was noticed that there is a lack of general skills and competence in purposive groups. Pupils of foster home, also those young people who have already left foster home, and children of social risk have a lack of these skills because of the experience of educational failures. Representatives of this group very often avoid attending general education institutions because of experiencing difficulties, not being able to concentrate, emotional conditions, and relations with others. As a result of poorly participating school, not being able or being able to acquire poor general skills, they encounter with all kinds of difficulties when resuming education and gaining a profession. Also many questioned disabled persons have acquired education long time ago, therefore, it is important to develop general skills and professional requalification.
- Employees do not have preconceptions to people who have grew in social foster home and children who grew in families of social risk because many of them do not introduce this experience to the employer. In their case, possession of knowledge and skills is the most important factor for employers in labour market. Employers have various viewpoints when talking about equal opportunities of disabled people to participate in work process (to employ, gain a good salary, make a progress on one’s career, etc). Their attitude is determined by some existing stereotypes that labour productivity of disabled people is smaller then of other people, also they are passive, they are not interested in their work results, their work quality is doubtful, they are not ready for fast-paced work, and they have inadequate reaction of situation. Also results show that employees have a lack of information about means that are used for integration of people that experience a social separation in labour market. A part of employees would take full advantage of the given abilities. Raising means of separate qualification for disabled people in institutions are applied very rarely, therefore, projects, which are intended to gain a professional qualification and professional rehabilitation, would increase the competition in the labour market of people that experience the social separation. Employees positively assess the practice given before giving a job because it helps to make sure if the candidate has social, general, and professional skills. Employers think that persons who experience social separation have a lack of these mentioned skills.
- Business prognosis show that the biggest problem of the unemployed people reduction in all analyzed municipalities will be taken by service and marketing sectors, mostly in transport and service work. Specialities of draymen, salesmen, hall workers, waiters-barmen, and cooks will dominate between those who have demand. It causes the necessity of reclassification of employees who have become unemployed in other sectors. These indicators show what kind of professional skills should be gained by persons that do not have any speciality in order to be able to compete in the labour marker.