The growing interest of entrepreneurship education training is evident and there is a number of the proposals by higher education institutions as well as non-formal education organizations. In March, 2016, Europe Institute implemented a survey about Youth perspective towards entrepreneurship. A questionnaire was send out to schools and universities in the EU.

Key questions were related to the need of entrepreneurship education and training (EET), what competencies should be developed during ETT and when it should start. It indented to discover how youth comprehend concept of entrepreneurship and if the needs of them are satisfied with currently available offers. For this reason, a solid independent survey was implemented.

Concept of entrepreneurship

Entrepreneurship can be described as capacity and willingness to develop, design, launch and run a new business along with any of its risks in order to make a profit[1].This field got attention only in 20th century when people started to go deeper when learning a new science – economics.

comprehension about entrepreneurshipEntrepreneurship is closely related and beneficial to later stages of economic development. This relationship can be portrayed and explained by “U-shaped” theory. This theory says that if one field develops from a factor-driven stage of development to an efficiency-driven stage activity of entrepreneurship decreases; notwithstanding, as fields develop further from efficiency-driven stage to the innovation-driven stage, entrepreneurial activity increases[2].

Entrepreneurship can have two meanings. In a narrow significance, entrepreneurship is perceived as ability to achieve added economic value. This definition is used among youth entrepreneurship organizations. Broader definition includes not only payment and ability to create added value but also social value establishment. To be more generic, entrepreneurship in a wider meaning is congenital and acquired personal qualities that let us create economic, social and other values. This is enterprise competency essence[3].

Youth enterprise is young people view, skills, and knowledge that allows to create added value (social and economic) and actions devoted to use the opportunity. Youth is the most receptive society group, therefore, their entrepreneurship has to be promoted and encouraged; focus on their needs combining all the training.

There are two programmes that stimulate entrepreneurship and support individuals that are willing to get involved or are already engaged in activities: 1) entrepreneurship education (EE); 2) entrepreneurship training (ET). EE programs focus on building knowledge and skills about or for the purpose of entrepreneurship. Target group is secondary and higher education students. In contrast, ET programmes focus on building knowledge and skills, explicitly in preparation for starting on operating enterprise. Target group: potential and practicing entrepreneurs who are not part of formal, degree-granting programs[4].

survey_target_group
Target group of statistical data:

Youth who are currently involved in school or university in Europe or have very recently graduated.

 Used methodology:
  • Theoretical: analysis of scientific literature, statistical data analysis, graphical data representation.
  • Empirical: questionnaire.
 Research methodology

 Aim of the research is to find out and analyse youth opinions about entrepreneurship that is currently involved in school or university in Europe. Lithuania’s and foreign research data is based on descriptive statistics. The data of survey will allow us to know how youth perceives entrepreneurship, entrepreneurs, in which areas they would like to increase their knowledge and what EET (entrepreneurship education and training) programmes they know.

Main research method – anonymous questionnaire from which the analysis was done and needed data received. All questions that were given to respondents are divided into five diagnostic areas:

  1. Four questions about respondent;
  2. Two questions about entrepreneurship and enterprise establishment;
  3. Two questions about attitude towards an entrepreneur and what features he/she has to have;
  4. Nine questions about lectures and seminar that are (or are desired) in educational institutions;
  5. Two questions about travel that require a lot of physical and mental endurance.

Questionnaire was accomplished in 2016 March.

Using Google forms the active link was sent by email and posted in social media networks.

Summary of Survey Results

 Summarizing the collected data of survey, the main highlights falls upon the following key findings:

  • 580 respondents participated in the survey. 113 of them used to have or still have their own business
  • 80.5 % of respondents would like to start their own business, but feel they lack of entrepreneurship knowledge/skills, lack of money and the fear of financial losses prevent majority of them from becoming entrepreneurs.
  • Lithuanians lack of lectures (lessons) about entrepreneurship more than students from other European countries
  • Most answers in the questionnaire stated that entrepreneurship education should be learnt at secondary education.
  • Analysis of questionnaire confirmed results by other scientific articles saying that entrepreneur should be comprehensive personality with a number of professional competencies
  • Majority of respondents would invest into their additional education even if they do not have savings for it at the particular moment
  • Even respondents agreed that an entrepreneur should have wide range of skills, the biggest emphasis was placed on improvement of knowledge in areas like economic, finance, management, entrepreneurship and marketing
  • motivation_coaching_trainingMost of the respondents were not familiar with entrepreneurial projects, although they have indicated that would not mind to try them even if they require physical and mental endurance
  • The importance of entrepreneurial skills in the labour market of nowadays is evident
  • The number of responses predicates that entrepreneurship education programmes should be focused on 10-25 year old people.
  • The best way to learn entrepreneurship is attending live lectures, listening to success stories and by implementing tasks related to entrepreneurship.
  • Analysis of the questionnaire data allows asserting that establishment and ownership of business does not depend on gender
  • Willingness to testing yourself in entrepreneurial travel training does not depend on gender as well.

Survey results show that youth in Europe lack of entrepreneurship education and training. The need is obvious and the demand is bigger than the supply in the current market.
Resources:

[1] Yetisen, A. K., Volpatti, L. R., Coskun, A. F., Cho, S., Kamrani, E., Butt, H., … & Yun, S. H. (2015). 1. The university entrepreneur. Lab Chip, 15

[2] Valerio A., Parton B., Robb A. (2014) Entrepreneurship Education and Training Programs around the World. Dimensions for Success.

[3] Entrepreneurship academy (2012). Qualification improvement program for teachers “Entrepreneurship academy” Methodical material I module. The concept of entrepreneurship. Theoretical and practical assumptions of entrepreneurship education in school.

[4] Valerio A., Parton B., Robb A. (2014) Entrepreneurship Education and Training Programs around the World. Dimensions for Success.